Eight Main Symptoms of Groupthink
1. Illusion of Invulnerability: Members ignore obvious deficiencies, take extreme positions, and are overly confident in their position.
2. Collective Rationalization: Members discredit and explain away any positions contrary to group thinking.
3. Illusion of Morality: Members believe their decisions are morally correct, ignoring the ethical consequences of their decisions.
4. Excessive Stereotyping: The group constructs negative stereotypes of rivals outside the group.
5. Pressure for Conformity: Members pressure any in the group who express arguments against the group's stereotypes, illusions, or commitments, viewing such opposition as disloyalty.
6. Self-Censorship: Members withhold their dissenting views and counter-arguments.
7. Illusion of Unanimity: Members perceive falsely that everyone agrees with the group's decision; silence is seen as consent.8. Mindguards: Some members appoint themselves to the role of protecting the group from adverse information that might threaten group complacency.
4 years ago