Tuesday, May 20, 2008

Eight Main Symptoms of Groupthink

Eight Main Symptoms of Groupthink

1. Illusion of Invulnerability: Members ignore obvious deficiencies, take extreme positions, and are overly confident in their position.

2. Collective Rationalization: Members discredit and explain away any positions contrary to group thinking.

3. Illusion of Morality: Members believe their decisions are morally correct, ignoring the ethical consequences of their decisions.

4. Excessive Stereotyping: The group constructs negative stereotypes of rivals outside the group.

5. Pressure for Conformity: Members pressure any in the group who express arguments against the group's stereotypes, illusions, or commitments, viewing such opposition as disloyalty.

6. Self-Censorship: Members withhold their dissenting views and counter-arguments.

7. Illusion of Unanimity: Members perceive falsely that everyone agrees with the group's decision; silence is seen as consent.

8. Mindguards: Some members appoint themselves to the role of protecting the group from adverse information that might threaten group complacency.

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